COOPERATION WITH RESPECT TO OWNERSHIP
Japan's cooperation is provided based on the concept of supporting the self-help efforts of recipient countries. Technical cooperation projects are implemented jointly by personnel from the recipient country and Japan. Ownership of the project lies strictly with the recipient country, and Japan’s status is that of a cooperating partner.
In the Philippines, environmental concerns, especially the solid waste management cause of a significant social problem which includes deterioration of public health and sanitation not only in the Manila Metropolitan area but also in the local cities. In order to address the issues, the Government of the Philippines enacted Ecological Solid Waste Management Act (RA 9003) in 2001, which set forth the implementing responsibility of local government units, provisions of ecologically sustainable Solid Waste Management (SWM) and establishment of the National Solid Waste Management Commission (NSWMC) under the Office of the President to promote the Act.
The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), the official entity implementing technical assistance of Japan, dispatched experts to NSWMC in strengthening its administrative capability on SWM and prepared a technical guideline on SWM design and operation and a guideline for safe closure of disposal sites, and had accepted the counterparts as participants in a study program held in Japan as well. Consequently, the administrative capability of NSWMC on SWM has been enhanced. Meanwhile, the numbers of Local Government Units (LGUs) implementing the suitable SWM are actually less than 2% among approximately 1,600 LGUs exist in the country. There is no bounty system relating to SWM from the central government to LGUs which supports LGUs to procure necessary equipment, and to manage institutional and human resource development on SWM by themselves.